La guerre ratée contre la drogue mise à mal par trois évolutions majeures

MEXICO CITY – Au cours des deux derniers mois, l’approche politique en matière de drogues aux Etats-Unis et en Amérique latine a connu des changements plus notables qu’au cours des décennies précédentes. Trois évolutions majeures se sont produites, qui aurait chacune été importante à elle seule ; prises ensemble, elles pourraient signifier une ligne novatrice entraînant la fin de la guerre ratée contre le narcotrafic.

Il y a tout d’abord eu le référendum sur la légalisation du cannabis dans les États américains du Colorado et de Washington le 6 novembre. Pour la première fois, les électeurs du pays qui est le plus gros consommateur de drogues illicites en général, et du cannabis en particulier, ont approuvé, avec une majorité confortable, des projets de loi qui autorisent la possession, la production et la distribution de cannabis.

Bien qu’une initiative similaire ait échoué en Oregon, et que la Proposition 19 (un projet de loi qui prévoyait une légalisation limitée du cannabis) ait été rejetée en Californie en 2010 (par une majorité de 7 pour cent), l’issue des référendums dans les États du Colorado et de Washington a envoyé un message éloquent au reste des Etats-Unis. Ces résultats n’ont pas seulement donné lieu à un conflit entre la loi fédérale et la législation de ces États, mais également souligné un changement d’attitude analogue à celui concernant le mariage homosexuel.

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