solar panels Kevin Frayer/Getty Images

Nous aurons toujours besoin de Paris

LONDRES – La décision du Président Donald Trump de retirer les États-Unis de l'Accord sur le Climat de Paris est profondément regrettable et se fonde sur une mauvaise analyse économique. Mais l'inexorable progrès technologique, ainsi qu'une action déterminée par d'autres pays, par des entreprises à travers le monde et par des villes et des États d'Amérique, vont s'assurer que Trump ne fasse pas dévier le progrès vers une économie pauvre en carbone.

Trump a fait valoir que l'Accord de Paris allait réduire le PIB américain de 3 000 milliards de dollars d'ici 2040. Mais l'étude qu'il a citée de façon absurde suppose que la réduction des émissions américaines serait inégalée par l'action des autres pays. Autre point déterminant, elle ne tient pas compte de la révolution technologique qui transforme actuellement l'économie de la production d'électricité.

En seulement sept ans, les coûts de l'énergie éolienne ont baissé de plus de 65 % et les coûts de l'énergie solaire sont en baisse de près de 90 %. Dans certaines régions favorables, des sociétés onshore d'énergie éolienne et solaire remportent actuellement des enchères de livraison d'électricité à des prix aussi bas que 0,03 dollar par kilowattheure (kWh) et viennent ainsi facilement concurrencer les producteurs d'énergie fossile. Les coûts de l'énergie éolienne offshore connaissent également une baisse bien plus rapide que prévue.

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