White House front walkway with President Obama walking in.

¿Qué rumbo debe seguir la política exterior de los Estados Unidos?

BANGALORE – Cuando el Presidente de los Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, habló recientemente en las Naciones Unidas sobre la necesidad de contrarrestar al Estado Islámico, muchos de sus críticos se quejaron de que insistiera demasiado en la diplomacia y no bastante en el uso de la fuerza. Se hicieron comparaciones con la intervención militar del Presidente de Rusia, Vladimir Putin, en la guerra civil de Siria y, como la campaña para la elección presidencial de los EE.UU. está empezando de verdad, algunos candidatos republicanos acusaron a Obama de aislacionismo.

Pero esas acusaciones son retórica política partidista poco basada en un análisis riguroso de políticas. Más exacto es ver el talante actual como una oscilación del péndulo de la política exterior de los EE.UU. entre lo que Stephen Sestanovich, de la Universidad de Columbia, ha llamado políticas “maximalistas” y políticas de “repliegue”.

El repliegue no es aislacionismo; es un ajuste de los fines y medios estratégicos. Entre los presidentes que aplicaron políticas de repliegue desde el fin de la segunda guerra mundial figuraron Dwight Eisenhower, Richard Nixon, Jimmy Carter y ahora Obama. Ningún historiador objetivo los consideraría aislacionistas.

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