White House front walkway with President Obama walking in.

أي الطرق إلى السياسة الخارجية الأميركية؟

بنغالور ــ عندما تحدث الرئيس الأميركي باراك أوباما مؤخراً في الأمم المتحدة عن مكافحة تنظيم الدولة الإسلامية، اشتكى كثيرون من منتقديه من تركيزه بقدر أكبر مما ينبغي على الدبلوماسية وعدم استخدامه للقدر الكافي من القوة. وبطبيعة الحال أجريت المقارنات مع تدخل الرئيس الروسي فلاديمير بوتن العسكري في الحرب الأهلية الدائرة في سوريا؛ ومع تحول الحملة الانتخابية الرئاسية الأميركية إلى حالة أعظم من التأهب، اتهم بعض المرشحين الجمهوريين أوباما بالانعزالية.

ولكن مثل هذه الاتهامات ليست أكثر من خطاب سياسي متحزب، ولا تقوم على أساس في التحليل السياسي الدقيق. ومن قبيل الدقة أن ننظر إلى المزاج الحالي باعتباره تأرجحاً لبندول السياسة الخارجية الأميركية بين ما أسماه ستيفن سيستانوفيتش من جامعة كولومبيا سياسات "عدم التنازل" وسياسات "التخندق".

والتخندق ليس انعزالية؛ بل هو في واقع الأمر تعديل للأهداف الاستراتيجية والوسائل. ومن الرؤساء الذين اتبعوا سياسات التخندق منذ نهاية الحرب العالمية الثانية دوايت أيزنهاور، وريتشارد نيكسون، وجيمي كارتر، والآن أوباما. وما كان لمؤرخ موضوعي أن يعتبر أياً من هؤلاء الرجال انعزاليا.

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