L’Europe confrontée au problème Orbán

BERLIN/BUDAPEST – Au mois d’avril dernier, félicitant le Premier ministre hongrois Viktor Orbán pour sa réélection, la chancelière allemande Angela Merkel a fait savoir que l’importante majorité remportée impliquait une « responsabilité sociale, » consistant à faire usage d’un jugement fondé sur la raison, et à faire preuve d’ouverture à l’égard de ses opposants. Jusqu’à présent Viktor Orbán s’est comporté de manière tout à fait inverse.

Orbán n’a en effet eu de cesse de défier les pratiques et valeurs fondamentales de l’Union européenne. S’inspirant de la feuille de route du président russe Vladimir Poutine, Orbán a mobilisé une majorité parlementaire constituée aux deux tiers par son parti Fidesz, afin de promouvoir un certain nombre de législations s’inscrivant à l’encontre de ce qu’il reste de liberté dans les médias, la société civile, et la communauté universitaire hongroise.

Dans le cadre de sa récente démarche à l’assaut des médias, Orbán a mis en place un impôt supplémentaire de 40% sur les bénéfices publicitaires, dans l’espoir de mettre définitivement à terre la chaîne RTL Klub, dernière station de télévision hongroise à conserver un esprit indépendant. Dans le même temps, le Premier ministre a décidé de serrer la vis des groupes locaux de la société civile, conduits par ceux qu’il dénonce comme des « activistes politiques payés pour favoriser les intérêts étrangers. » Il a notamment confié à ses officiers gouvernementaux la tâche consistant à harceler plusieurs ONG de protection des libertés civiles et des droits de l’homme, financées par le gouvernement norvégien. Le mois dernier, le parlement a également promulgué une loi prévoyant, au sein de chaque université de Hongrie, la présence d’un superviseur désigné par le gouvernement, jouissant d’une autorité budgétaire et d’un pouvoir de veto.

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