Treinta años de bebés de "probeta"

MELBOURNE – Louise Brown, la primera persona en ser concebida fuera de un cuerpo humano, cumplió 30 años el año pasado. El nacimiento de un "bebé de probeta", como describieron los titulares de los diarios la fertilización in vitro, fue extremadamente polémico en aquel momento. Leon Kass, quien luego se desempeñara como presidente del Consejo de Bioética del presidente George W. Bush, sostenía que el riesgo de producir un bebé anormal era demasiado alto como para que alguna vez se justificara un intento de fertilización in vitro. Algunos líderes religiosos también condenaron el uso de tecnología científica moderna para sustituir las relaciones sexuales, incluso cuando ellas no pudieran culminar en una concepción.

Desde entonces, unos tres millones de personas han sido concebidas por FIV, lo que permitió que parejas de otra manera infértiles pudieran tener el bebé que ansiaban. El riesgo de tener un hijo anormal mediante FIV resultó no ser mayor que cuando los padres de una edad similar conciben a través de relaciones sexuales. Sin embargo, como muchos de quienes practican FIV transfieren dos o tres embriones a la vez para mejorar las probabilidades de que ocurra un embarazo, los mellizos y los nacimientos múltiples mayores son más comunes, y conllevan cierto riesgo adicional.

La Iglesia Católica Romana no se apartó de su posición respecto de la FIV. En una instrucción dada a conocer recientemente, Dignitas Personae , la Congregación de la Iglesia para la Doctrina de la Fe objeta la FIV por varios motivos, entre los que se encuentra el hecho de que en el proceso se crean muchos embriones, y pocos sobreviven. Este resultado, sin embargo, no es muy diferente de la concepción natural, ya que la mayoría de los embriones concebidos a través de una relación sexual tampoco llegan a implantarse en la pared uterina, y las mujeres muchas veces ni siquiera son conscientes de que alguna vez estuvieron "embarazadas".

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