Denkende Computer müssten auch halluzinieren können

Einen Computer zu schaffen, der "denken kann", ist eines der Ziele bei der Erforschung künstlicher Intelligenz. 1950 vertrat der bedeutende britische Mathematiker, Alan Turing, die Meinung, ab 2000 werde es ,,denkende Rechner" geben. Aber Computer mit der Fähigkeit menschliche Denkprozesse zu simulieren, sind heute nicht in greifbarere Nähe gerückt, als damals, denn wir stellen die Wissenschaft über den allgemeinen Menschenverstand.

Einfacher ausgedrückt: Wir übergingen offensichtliche und wichtige Tatbestände in der Natur unseres Denkens, Tatbestände die uns unmittelbar vor Augen liegen. Philosophie ist dazu gedacht, uns auf die Dinge zu stoßen, die so offensichtlich sind, dass wir sie übersehen. Die meisten Philosophen scheinen über dieser Aufgabe seit langem eingeschlafen zu sein.

Ziehen sie vier Ihnen vertraute Situationen in Betracht. In der einen denken Sie logisch und analytisch über ein Problem nach - sagen wir darüber, welche Rentenversicherung Sie abschließen sollten. In der zweiten denken sie eher zufällig, Sie beziehen sich dabei eher auf Erfahrungen als auf analytisches Vorgehen. (Mein Rechner ist hängen geblieben. Als dies das letzte Mal geschah, bekam ich ihn mit diesem oder jenem Schritt wieder zum Laufen. Das werde ich nun wieder versuchen.). In der dritten Situation schauen sie aus dem Fenster und lassen ihre Gedanken schweifen. In der letzten sind Sie eingeschlafen und träumen.

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