Jon Krause

金砖国家底下好乘凉

墨西哥城——64年前,联合国就分割并建立以色列国进行表决,随后又授予以色列完全成员国资格。当时不少拉美国家——巴西、萨尔瓦多、阿根廷、哥伦比亚、智利、洪都拉斯——都投了弃权票,而古巴则投了反对票。墨西哥对分割决议投了反对票,但对几个月后的承认以色列国为联合国成员国决议投了赞成票,随后又将以色列视为犹太国家,承认在中东纠纷中不偏不倚最符合其国家利益。

在未来几周,拉美国家将向巴勒斯坦权力机构寻求联合国承认巴勒斯坦国家地位或将其接纳为成员国的决议投赞成票。这个问题不论对于安理会的两大非常任理事国巴西和哥伦比亚,还是对古巴、尼加拉瓜、委内瑞拉、哥斯达黎加、阿根廷、玻利维亚、厄瓜多尔、秘鲁、乌拉圭和洪都拉斯(这些国家已经承认了巴勒斯坦,但还未在联合国投票赞成授予其“观察国”地位)来说,都不是一个简单的问题。

为了成为完全的联合国成员国,安理会须由安理会提议将这一决议转交给联合国大会;但将巴勒斯坦权力机构的地位升级至与梵蒂冈相仿——从理论上说,这意味着允许巴勒斯坦权力机构加入众多联合国机构,包括国际刑事法庭——只需要联大三分之二多数赞成即可。无论如何,政治后果都会远大于法律或官僚问题。迫使美国在安理会投出否决票,或者获得联大193个成员国中150个以上的支持,将会是对以色列和美国的一次重大打击,这也是拉美如何投票至关重要的原因。

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