L’année du « modèle chinois »

L’année 2008 sera l’année de la Chine. Les Jeux olympiques – qui seront sans doute parfaitement organisés, sans un seul manifestant, clochard, dissident religieux ou autre trouble-fête en vue – rehausseront probablement le prestige global de la Chine. Alors que l’économie américaine est enlisée dans un bourbier de crédits immobiliers insolvables, l’économie chinoise poursuivra sa croissance fulgurante. De nouveaux gratte-ciels audacieux, conçus par les plus célèbres architectes, feront de Beijing et de Shanghai des modèles de la modernité du XXIe siècle. Davantage de Chinois apparaîtront sur les listes annuelles des plus grandes fortunes mondiales. Et les œuvres des artistes chinois atteindront lors des ventes aux enchères internationales des prix auxquels les autres artistes ne peuvent que rêver.

Se relever d’un dénuement presque total et d’une tyrannie sanglante en une seule génération est une prouesse pour laquelle la Chine ne peut qu’être admirée. Mais la réussite de la Chine est également le défi le plus important auquel la démocratie libérale doit faire face depuis le fascisme des années 30.

Ce n’est pas parce que la Chine constitue une grande menace militaire – une guerre avec les Etats-Unis, ou même avec le Japon n’est qu’une fantaisie dans l’esprit de quelques raseurs ultranationalistes et de paranoïaques. C’est dans le domaine des idées que le modèle politico-économique de la Chine, en oubliant ses conséquences environnementales, remporte des victoires et se présente comme une alternative intéressante au capitalisme libéral démocratique.

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