世界最大的缓冲器

        慕尼黑-从去年秋天开始,就有许多英美经济学家,特别是2008诺贝尔经济学奖获得者保罗·克鲁格曼(Paul Krugman),批评德国在对抗世界经济危机方面做得不够,并指责德国搭乘其他国家经济刺激计划的顺风车。最近,《金融时报》质问那些支持德国经济政策的德国经济学家哪里去了,并推测说,这些德国经济学家不同意德国政府的政策,但是他们太懦弱了,不敢公开说出来,这符合德国“共识社会”的传统。《金融时报》的这种议论,从一个德国人的角度看来,是对事实的可笑的颠倒。

        德国已经实施了两项经济刺激计划,用于刺激经济的资金达到了800亿欧元,占德国GDP的3.2%,其中,在2009年用掉的资金占德国GDP 的1%。乍一看来,德国用于刺激经济的资金确实是比美国的要少,因为美国用于经济刺激计划的资金占美国GDP的6.2%,而且在2009年用掉的资金占美国GDP的2%。但是,这种印象是具有欺骗性的,因为德国通过其具有内在弹性的广泛的社会保障体系,已经为世界经济的稳定作出了贡献。

        事实上,德国充裕的失业保险,保证了人们即使在失业的情况下,也可以保持其消费水平不下降。德国甚至为公司减少员工的工作时间提供短期补贴,从而使国家部分地补偿了这些员工减少的收入。如果德国没有这种短期补贴,德国2009年的平均失业人数要比现在的多300,000人。

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