Dean Rohrer

L’importance du rapport Doing Business

MADRID – Un comité d’examen indépendant devrait ce mois-ci rendre ses conclusions sur le rapport Doing Business de la Banque mondiale. Les spéculations vont bon train ; beaucoup d’observateurs pensent que le comité pourrait bien recommander l’externalisation de ce rapport, faisant disparaître les classements par pays qu’il établit afin de faciliter la conduite des affaires auprès de chaque État, voire qu’il pourrait préconiser la disparition pure et simple du rapport.

Cette problématique n’a rien d’inédit, certains puissants actionnaires de la Banque mondiale s’efforçant de couler le projet depuis son apparition en 2002. Deuxième économie de la planète, de plus en plus influente à l’égard de la Banque mondiale, la Chine tente aujourd’hui d’atténuer la portée de ce rapport en éliminant entre autres le classement des États auquel il procède. (Le rapport Doing Business a classé cette année la Chine à la 91e place parmi les 185 économies nationales ayant fait l’objet d’un examen.)

Or, une altération ou une disparition du rapport Doing Business constituerait une grave erreur, et reviendrait pour ainsi dire à jeter un bébé en pleine santé avec l’eau du bain. La méthodologie sur laquelle il repose est en effet en grande partie saine, ses objectifs sont légitimes, et ses conclusions tout à fait utiles.

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