By Oladele A. Ogunseitan

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Free Trade in Chains

Chatham House’s Paola Subacchi examines the causes and consequences of today’s anti-globalization backlash, guided by insights from Stephen Roach, Dani Rodrik, Joseph Stiglitz, and other Project Syndicate commentators.

now H igh prices encourage more mining, but t y don’t begin to cover the cost to health – ,尔湾市 —— 31 )售价约为 1150 美元。 同样重量的铂金的价格是 1450 美元。 如此高的价格刺激了进一步地开采,但这并没有计算上人类健康的成本 —— 同样的还包括地球本身。 For example, during the same season as these peak metal prices, thousands of children in China’s Henan Province of China are sick from lead poisoning , because they live near a facility operated by Henan Yuguang Gold ampamp; Lead Company, one of the world’s largest mining conglomerates. 数以千计的中国河南儿童由于铅中毒而受害,只是由于他们住在靠近河南 豫光铅 公司, 它是全球最大的采矿公司之一。 But high prices are also encouraging many more people to extract precious metals from existing products – at great danger to themselves and others . Moreover Indeed Yet , the world’s population “throws away” nearly 10 ounces of gold and 5 five ounces of platinum for every ton of cell phones that are discarded into landfills or incinerated. 从现有的产品中提取出贵金属 —— 冒着自己和他人的极大生命危险。实际上, 人类每 掩埋或燃烧 一吨的电池 废弃物,就相当于损失了将近 10 盎司 的黄金和 5 盎司 的白金。 O Moreover, o ther rare precious metals that are also teased from the Earth, including indium, gallium, palladium , and ruthenium, are being also simultaneously discarded in much the same way with as o t her such electronic waste (e-waste). So is tantalum, the essential constituent of the capacitors used in cell phones. Approximately 37% of the world’s supply of tantalum comes from Central Africa, where its mining it has been linked to devastating wars and environmental pollution. 其他贵金属,包括 铟,镓,钯 ,钌等,也是通过电子垃圾的方式被遗弃。 手机中的电容器中的基本元素钽也是 如此。世界上大约 37% 的钽产自中非,而那里也是战乱和环境污染最严重的地方。 of high - tech “e- se e , it any other , using of , incinerators to get rid of e-waste , which , 高科技的垃圾掩埋也是让这些贵金属回归自然的一种方式,也许 经过千年以后 ,它们 分解融合在地表里,变成一种地质 物质。但电子垃圾也产生出潜在的化学毒素,例如铅, 汞,镉和 溴化阻燃剂等。如果 如此 短视的方法来 掩埋,潜坑 或是焚化炉来解决电子垃圾的同时,也将这些有毒化学物质 释放出来, 对整个生态圈,野生环境和人类的健康都有 很大危害 with . There , the prospect of recovering a fraction of an ounce of gold or platinum entices communities to discount heavily the toxic risks and health effects of chronic exposure 过去的 十多年里, 电子垃圾中的贵金属的成分 在国际贸易中 出口到一些劳动力便宜的国家之中。 在那里,从废弃物中提取出 如此 少量的金或铂金也使得他们甘愿牺牲自己 的身体作为代价。 , legislative , s 如何 处理这些电子垃圾。如果在这个问题上缺乏共识,法律缺失,仅仅是在地上挖一个 洞来了事,那些弱势群体的人们就会 挖掘电子垃圾来谋生。 - countries those it it sought e Lawrence Summers, former Harvard President and now a chief economic advisor t Director of o President Barack Obama ’s National Economic Council 根据巴塞尔公约的规定, 跨国之间运输危险垃圾 将由产生电子垃圾和消费这些垃圾 共同处理。 实际上 ,正如 前哈佛大学校长,现任奥巴马总统国家经济委员会主席 劳伦斯·萨默斯 在备忘录中所说的:“我认为 将有毒废弃物运输到一个低工资的国家,这样 处于 经济的 目的所谓 逻辑 也是不可接受的。 , , involving its would a - - global 20 年的巴塞尔公约试图跟上新技术,不断产生的漏洞和 包含着危险品的秘密经济交易。在设立之初,没有人会预计到 20 年之后,电子产品 已经发展到 5000 万吨的规模。 If sustainable solutions to the global e-waste problem are to be found emerge, conscientious international cooperation will be needed. This is because the problem permeates the entire life cycle of materials used in manufacturing electronic products, beginning with from the mining of raw materials to the occupational hazards associated with manufacturing and product assembly, and the disposal of outdated or broken products. In the current global market, these events take place the life cycle of in several countries, and a n given electronic device may represent include the synthesis of labor and material across from a dozen or more countries. 因为 这个 问题已经渗透到电子产品的整个生命线上,从最初的原材料开采到 制造组装过程中的职业危险,到最后产品 废旧之后的处理等。在现今全球市场上,电子产品的生命周期包括来自多个国家的劳动力和原料的 参与。 M M any ost proposals exist have been presented for managing e-waste . , and M most of these can be assigned fall in to one of two major categories. The first is to Some would manage e-waste at one of the handful of sophisticated smelters that can recover precious metals from discarded electronic devices. For example, The Umicore Group in Belgium ( http://www.umicore.com/en/ ) advertises itself as the world’s largest recycler of electronic scrap, old mobile phones, and laptop computers. 通过少数有经验的提炼厂来回收这些贵金属,例如, 比利时的 优美科集团 宣称是世界上最大的电子垃圾,手机和笔记本电脑的回收商。 - cross-border ng 优美科标准的 冶炼设备 。因此,这就需要跨国之间的运输来 运送这些电子垃圾。 现在,我们 主要的问题是如何在街道上回收这些废弃设备, 然后将其分类来用于国际之间的运输和处理。 - an , which sicken 污染 的影响在可控 范围之内,分散循环 利用。 从某种程度来说, 其实这已经发生在 中国,加纳,印度和尼日利亚的 家庭手工业中,这些缺乏必需 工具的手工业者不能保护自己和邻居避免环境污染的伤害。 s for - for managing the waste of e- waste require the ment of ing 必须担负起责任来培训那些处理垃圾的人员,开发 出小型设备,用于地区 性的 使用,同样也要配合监管机构,保证一定的安全和环境的 监控措施,最后,正确的战略需要地方 的基础设施的兴建,更积极 社区参与合作,国际法规的出台, 在不影响到创新的前提下, 保证可持续的