Odpočívej v pokoji, sociální státe

PAŘÍŽ – Začátek něčeho lze vidět snáze než konec téhož. Sociální stát, který se zrodil v roce 1945 v poválečné Velké Británii, zde tento týden dospěl ke konci, když britský ministr financí George Osborne zavrhl koncept „všeobecné dávky“, tedy představy, že sociální ochraně by se neměli těšit pouze chudí lidé, nýbrž všichni.

Sociální stát popsal jeho intelektuální architekt, lord Beveridge, jako strukturu vybudovanou s cílem chránit jednotlivce „od kolébky do hrobu“. Tento model nakonec převládl ve všech západoevropských zemích, přičemž místní tradice a místní politika určují jeho rozmanité uplatňování. Do 60. let minulého století byla celá demokratická Evropa sociálně demokratická – představovala kombinaci volných trhů a masové sociální ochrany.

Úspěch tohoto evropského modelu překonal i ty nejdivočejší sny a po desetiletí byl terčem tak silné závisti okolního světa, že se mu americký kapitalismus na způsob „divokého Západu“ ani sovětský či maoistický státní socialismus nikdy nemohly rovnat. Zdálo se, že sociální demokracie kombinuje přednosti obou systémů: hospodářskou efektivitu a sociální spravedlnost.

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