别了,福利国家

巴黎——

人们容易接受新事物的出现,却不愿看到旧事物的出局。福利国家的概念出现于战后1945年的英国,它倡导“普遍受益”、强调全民(不仅限于穷人)都应从社会保障制度中受益。本周,英国财政大臣乔治•奥斯本宣布英国将不再实践这一理念。

福利国家最早是由贝弗里奇勋爵构想的,他将其描绘为个体提供“从摇篮到坟墓”保护的社会结构。尽管其具体实践形式因地方传统和政治特色而略有不同,但从总体上看,福利国家成为了所有西欧国家的主要社会模式。到上世纪六十年代,欧洲所有民主国家全都奉行社会民主主义,主张自由市场和面向大众的社会保障相结合。

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