Ошибки, допускаемые при измерении уровня бедности

РИМ – В начале 2012 года уходящий в отставку президент Всемирного банка Роберт Зеллик объявил, что Цель тысячелетия в области развития, заключающаяся в том, чтобы снизить уровень бедности в мире наполовину, по отношению к существовавшему в 1990 году была достигнута в 2010 году, на пять лет раньше запланированного срока. Однако многие экономисты поставили под сомнение эту оценку, основанную на установленной Всемирным банком и действующей в настоящее время черте бедности, которая в 2008 году была увеличена с 1 доллара США до 1 доллара и 25 центов США в день на условиях паритета покупательной способности (ППС).

Критики утверждают, что по методологическим причинам черта бедности, основанная на ППС, искажает факты о широкой распространенности бедности в мире. Например, во время каждого из трех этапов Программы международных сопоставлений Всемирного банка, проходивших до сих пор, черта бедности определялась по-разному, подчеркивая слабость текущей методики измерения. Фактически, принимая во внимание инфляцию в США, черта бедности должна была бы увеличиться в 2005 году до 1 доллара 45 центов США в день.

Для улучшения проведения оценки бедности в мире, которую Всемирный банк осуществляет на протяжении трех десятилетий, с начала 1981 года, необходимо преодолеть три основные проблемы: недостаточные материалы для обследования, ошибки при выполнении обследования и неправильные пересчеты с учетом ППС. К сожалению, подход Всемирного банка не учел этих проблем и принял для их разрешения неправильные меры.

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