Nesprávné měření chudoby

ŘÍM – Počátkem roku 2012 oznámil odstupující prezident Světové banky Robert Zoellick, že rozvojového cíle tisíciletí v podobě snížení globální chudoby na polovinu oproti úrovni z roku 1990 se podařilo dosáhnout v roce 2010 – tedy pět let před stanoveným termínem. Mnoho analytiků však zpochybnilo odhady opírající se o současnou definici hranice chudoby, kterou stanovila Světová banka a jež se v roce 2008 zvýšila z 1,0 na 1,25 dolaru denně, měřeno podle parity kupní síly (PPP).

Kritikové tvrdí, že hranice chudoby založená na PPP nevystihuje z metodologických důvodů rozšíření chudoby po světě. Například tři kola Mezinárodního srovnávacího programu Světové banky, která zatím proběhla, pokaždé definovala hranici chudoby jinak, což jen podtrhlo slabiny současného měření. Při zohlednění inflace ve Spojených státech měla být například hranice chudoby v roce 2005 zvýšena na 1,45 dolaru denně.

Zdokonalení odhadů globální chudoby – odhady Světové banky započaly v roce 1981, takže se provádějí déle než tři desítky let – vyžaduje překonání tří hlavních problémů: nedostatečných výzkumných dat, pochybného provádění výzkumu a mylné konverze PPP. Přístup Světové banky se bohužel těmto problémům vyhýbá nebo je řeší nedostatečně.

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