Der Kollaps des arabischen Nationalstaats

BOSTON – Der so genannte Arabische Frühling hat unter den Kämpfern und Befürwortern der Demokratisierung der autoritären Regime der arabischen Welt eine Welle der Hoffnung ausgelöst. Nach Führungswechseln in Tunesien, Ägypten, Libyen und Jemen und während in Syrien ein brutaler Bürgerkrieg wütet und sich die Lage in Bahrain, Sudan, Jordanien und Irak zusehends anspannt, ist inzwischen vielfach die Rede von einem grundlegenden Wandel – und der Hoffnung auf eine Verbesserung – des Charakters und der Perspektiven der arabischen Staaten.

Doch Hoffnung – „das Ding mit Federn“ wie es die US-amerikanische Dichterin Emily Dickins einmal nannte – weist oftmals kaum Ähnlichkeiten mit der Realität vor Ort auf. Wenn der Blick aus der Vogelperspektive erdwärts schweift, scheint die Schönheit des Arabischen Frühlings einem fast unerträglichen Winter gewichen zu sein.

Allem Optimismus zum Trotz, der vor zwei Jahren Einzug hielt, könnten unheilvolle politische Realitäten das System Nationalstaat mit der entstehenden neuen arabischen Welt unvereinbar werden lassen. Demzufolge stellt sich nun die brennende Frage, wie die Region ohne stabile Nationalstaaten ihre Stabilität bewahren kann.

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