John Overmyer

Водная гегемония

НЬЮ-ДЕЛИ. Международные обсуждения возвышения Китая сосредоточены на его увеличивающейся торговой мощи, растущих морских амбициях и росте возможностей переброски вооружённых сил. Однако одна важнейшая проблема обычно ускользает от внимания – возвышение Китая как водной гегемонии, не имеющее параллелей в современной истории.

Ни одной стране прежде не удавалось получить такое неоспоримое превосходство на континенте посредством контроля верховьев множества международных рек и манипулирования их потоками. Китай, крупнейший в мире строитель плотин (обладающий немногим более половины из приблизительно 50 000 крупных плотин на планете), стремительно усиливает влияние на своих соседей, реализуя масштабные гидроинженерные проекты на международных реках.

Водная карта Азии в корне изменилась после победы коммунистов в Китае в 1949 г. Большинство важных международных рек Азии берут своё начало на территориях, которые были силой присоединены к Китайской Народной Республике. Тибетское плато, например, является крупнейшим в мире хранилищем питьевой воды и источником крупнейших рек Азии, в том числе рек, являющихся «артериями» материкового Китая, а также Южной и Юго-Восточной Азии. Другие подобные китайские территории содержат верховья таких рек, как Иртыш, Или и Амур, текущих в Россию и Центральную Азию.

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