Die chinesischen Erbfolgekriege

Welche politischen Reformen wird Hu Jintao in China durchführen? Das ist die Frage, die man dem 59-jährigen Ingenieur stellen muss, der im kommenden Monat den Vorsitz der größten und am längsten regierenden kommunistischen Partei der Welt übernimmt. Obwohl die öffentliche Debatte in China den ganzen Sommer über von dem Kuhhandel um Hus Machtantritt - und von Präsident Jiang Zemin offensichtlicher Unwilligkeit, abzutreten - bestimmt war, scheint es doch weitaus wichtiger für Chinas Zukunft, sich das Erbe genauer anzusehen, das Hu antreten wird und was er damit zu tun gedenkt.

Hu Jintaos Karriere gibt keinen Anlass zum Optimismus. In einem Xinhua-Bericht von 1998 wurde zwar sein Wort "Ein guter Staatschef sollte die Demokratie vorantreiben" zitiert, aber in Hus Vorstellung von Demokratie haben Ideen wie die Direktwahl von führenden Politikern oder die Garantie persönlicher Freiheiten scheinbar keinen Platz.

Laut Wu Jiaxiang, einem ehemaligen Mitarbeiter des Sekretariats des Kommunistischen Zentralkomitees, der an politischen Reformen arbeitete, bis er nach dem Massaker von Tiananmen 1989 für drei Jahre inhaftiert wurde, glaubt Hu an die Regierung durch Eliten, die in einem strengen Prüf- und Billigungsprozess ausgewählt werden. In internen Reden bezeichnete Hu den systematischen Aufbau von Führungskadern und die Verbesserung von Parteioperationen als den Schlüssel zur politischen Reform. Diese Vorstellungen spiegeln sich in einem neuen Gesetz wider, das im Juli 2002 von den regierenden Kadern bewilligt und von Hu persönlich verkündet wurde. Diese elitäre Modell ist attraktiv für chinesische Intellektuelle, die sich gebildetere Politiker wünschen.

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