La guerre pour le pétrole

Depuis des décennies, tant les Républicains que les Démocrates poursuivent les mêmes objectifs dans le domaine pétrolier : maintenir tant que faire se peut la stabilité du cours du pétrole, réduire en douceur la consommation intérieure, diminuer la dépendance liée aux importations et diversifier les sources d'approvisionnement étrangères. Malgré les apparences, ces objectifs sont toujours les mêmes aujourd'hui, sous l'administration Bush.

Beaucoup d'observateurs croient qu'avec l'invasion de l'Irak, Bush a choisi une autre voie. Une augmentation importante de la production irakienne accroîtrait probablement la dépendance pétrolière des USA. Le prix du baril de pétrole baissera sans doute avec l'apparition d'une nouvelle source d'approvisionnement, d'où une dépendance accrue des USA, notamment vis-à-vis du Moyen-Orient.

Il est paradoxal de constater que les USA exerçaient davantage de contrôle sur le pétrole irakien dans le cadre du programme "Nourriture contre pétrole" de l'ONU avant la guerre (c'était alors l'ONU et non pas Saddam Hussein qui fixait le niveau des exportations irakiennes) qu'ils ne pourront le faire dans le contexte d'un futur état irakien démocratique. Si l'administration Bush cherchait des sources d'approvisionnement pétrolier stables, sûres, diversifiées et bon marché, il lui suffisait de lever l'embargo imposé à la Libye, à l'Iran, à l'Irak et au Soudan et de laisser couler le pétrole.

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