Umberto Eco Massimo Valicchia/ZumaPress

Virtuální imaginace

MILÁN: Stanou se knihy díky moci počítačů a internetu nekonečnou „hypertextovou strukturou“, jejíž čtenář je zároveň jejím autorem?

Dnes existují dva druhy knih: ty, které čteme, a ty, k nimž se obracíme pro radu. Knihu ke čtení začínáme číst na první straně, kde autor sděluje, že – dejme tomu – byla spáchána vražda. V četbě pak pokračujeme až do konce, kde vyjde najevo, kdo je vrah. Konec knihy, konec čtení. Stejným způsobem čteme filozofii, například Husserla. Na první straně knihy autor zahajuje úvahu a potom klade řadu otázek, aby předvedl, jak došel ke svému závěru.

Naopak encyklopedie nejsou od toho, abychom je četli od začátku do konce. Chceme-li zjistit, zda je možné, že se Kant setkal s Napoleonem, otevřeme díly K a N, kde zjistíme, že Napoleon se narodil roku 1769 a zemřel v roce 1821 a že Kant se narodil roku 1724 a zemřel v roce 1804. Zjistíme, že ti dva se opravdu mohli setkat. Chceme-li vědět víc, podíváme se do Kantova životopisu. Životopis Napoleonův, jenž se během svého života setkal s mnoha osobnostmi, by totiž mohl jeho setkání s Kantem opomenout; Kantova biografie nikoliv.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/9Ark6wG/cs;
  1. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images

    The Summit of Climate Hopes

    Presidents, prime ministers, and policymakers gather in Paris today for the One Planet Summit. But with no senior US representative attending, is the 2015 Paris climate agreement still viable?

  2. Trump greets his supporters The Washington Post/Getty Images

    Populist Plutocracy and the Future of America

    • In the first year of his presidency, Donald Trump has consistently sold out the blue-collar, socially conservative whites who brought him to power, while pursuing policies to enrich his fellow plutocrats. 

    • Sooner or later, Trump's core supporters will wake up to this fact, so it is worth asking how far he might go to keep them on his side.
  3. Agents are bidding on at the auction of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi' Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images

    The Man Who Didn’t Save the World

    A Saudi prince has been revealed to be the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi," for which he spent $450.3 million. Had he given the money to the poor, as the subject of the painting instructed another rich man, he could have restored eyesight to nine million people, or enabled 13 million families to grow 50% more food.

  4.  An inside view of the 'AknRobotics' Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

    Two Myths About Automation

    While many people believe that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically, there is no evidence of either trend. In reality, total factor productivity, the best summary measure of the pace of technical change, has been stagnating since 2005 in the US and across the advanced-country world.

  5. A student shows a combo pictures of three dictators, Austrian born Hitler, Castro and Stalin with Viktor Orban Attila Kisbenedek/Getty Images

    The Hungarian Government’s Failed Campaign of Lies

    The Hungarian government has released the results of its "national consultation" on what it calls the "Soros Plan" to flood the country with Muslim migrants and refugees. But no such plan exists, only a taxpayer-funded propaganda campaign to help a corrupt administration deflect attention from its failure to fulfill Hungarians’ aspirations.

  6. Project Syndicate

    DEBATE: Should the Eurozone Impose Fiscal Union?

    French President Emmanuel Macron wants European leaders to appoint a eurozone finance minister as a way to ensure the single currency's long-term viability. But would it work, and, more fundamentally, is it necessary?

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now