Virtuální nepřítel

Od teroristických útoků na New York a Washington ze září 2001 uplynulo pět let, ale zdá se, že se političtí představitelé jen velmi málo poučili, jak teroristické buňky operují a kde mají slabiny. Bushova administrativa stále používá frázi „válka s terorismem“ a chová se, jako by to skutečně byla válka – obyčejná válka, kde jedna vláda bojuje s druhou. Po pěti letech vojenského snažení však strategie cílené na jednotného agresora pouze zhoršily situaci. Přišel čas pochopit zatím nepoznaný, nově se rodící model konfliktu.

Ve snaze učinit „válečné“ paradigma přiléhavým hovoří Bushova administrativa o al-Káidě jako o centrálně řízeném nepříteli. Ve skutečnosti však neexistuje žádný hlavní plánovač nebo sponzor teroristických aktivit. Útoky v Madridu, Londýně a na Bali, stejně jako několik zmařených operací ve Spojených státech a v Británii byly vesměs charakterizovány roztroušenou organizací. Nezávisle zosnovaná spiknutí využívala ad hoc prostředky, často uvnitř cílové země.

Tyto malé operace zároveň postrádaly společnou vnitřní osnovu. Motivace teroristů se liší buňku od buňky, ba dokonce osobu od osoby. Někteří jednotlivci se mohou na operacích podílet kvůli zisku a moci nebo z politických a náboženských důvodů, zatímco jiní se jich účastní z nenávisti nebo kvůli vzrušení. Mezi jednotlivými stupni organizační struktury nebo i mezi buňkami navzájem navíc existují obrovské rozdíly co do rizika, odměn a závazných pravidel. Konvenční vojenské modely jsou uzpůsobeny k tomu, aby usekávaly hlavu něčemu, co v tomto případě žádnou hlavu nemá.

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