Paul Lachine

Las variedades de desempleo

BERKELEY – Actualmente un número inusual de sectores opina que los gobiernos de Europa y de América del Norte, así como sus bancos centrales, deben abandonar las políticas expansivas que han puesto en marcha para tratar de crear empleos. El fuerte desempleo que actualmente aqueja al Atlantico del Norte, sostienen los críticos de los estímulos gubernamentales, no es cíclico sino “estructural”, y por consiguiente no se puede mitigar con políticas que impulsan la demanda agregada.

Antes que nada quiero decir que el desempleo estructural es un peligro real y severo. Cuando las personas que en otras circunstancias podrían ser felices, sanas y ser miembros productivos de la fuerza laboral pero no cuentan con la capacitación, la confianza, las redes sociales y la experiencia que se necesitan para encontrar un empleo que vale la pena remunerar, obviamente tenemos un problema. Además, si el desempleo en Europa y en América del Norte se mantiene alto durante dos o tres años más, es muy probable que tengamos que encararlo. Porque no hay forma más segura de convertir el desempleo cíclico en desempleo estructural que con el desempleo prolongado.

¿Sin embargo, es lo que sucede hoy en día? ¿Actualmente, es el desempleo estructural el mayor problema que parecen enfrentar las economías de Europa y de América del Norte? No es así.

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