Paul Lachine

Les différentes formes de chômage

BERKELEY – Des nombreuses voix s’élèvent étonnamment de part et d’autre ces derniers temps pour inciter les gouvernements européens et américain à abandonner les politiques expansionnistes adoptées à l’origine pour créer des emplois. Le chômage élevé qui pèse aujourd’hui lourdement sur l’hémisphère nord n’est pas, d’après les sceptiques des plans de relance adoptés par les gouvernements, d’ordre cyclique mais bien d’ordre « structurel » et ne peut donc être résolu par des politiques visant à dynamiser la demande globale.  

Je souhaiterais être le premier à dire que le chômage structurel constitue un danger réel et grave. Lorsque des individus qui, dans des circonstances différentes, pourraient constituer une main d’ouvre heureuse, en bonne santé, et productive mais qui manquent des compétences, de la confiance, des réseaux sociaux et d’expérience pour trouver un travail qui mérite d’être rémunéré, nous avons là, à l’évidence, un problème. Et si le taux de chômage en Europe et en Amérique du nord persiste à la hausse pendant encore deux ou trois ans, il nous faudra inévitablement agir. Car rien ne convertit un chômage cyclique en un chômage structurel plus surement qu’une période prolongée de chômage.

Mais cela est-il vrai aujourd’hui ? Est-ce vraiment un chômage structurel qui constitue le plus gros problème des économies européennes et nord-américaine ? Non.

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