Paul Lachine

失业也分类型

发自伯克莱——近一段时间有一个令人惊讶的消息在各种渠道广为传播,说欧洲和北美地区的各国政府及其央行即将停止执行刺激就业的扩张性财政政策。那些政府刺激计划的批评者认为,当前困扰着北大西洋两岸的高失业率并不是周期性的,而是“结构性的”,因此那些试图通过扩大需求总量来缓解就业形势的政策自然也是缘木求鱼了。

请让我首先说明,结构性失业确实存在,而且是极端危险的。当那些在其它情况下本该愉快,健康且努力工作的劳动者因为缺乏技能、信心,社会网络以及经验而找不到合适的工作之时,这个问题就突显出来了。而倘若欧美地区的失业率连续两三年上升的话,那么我们就很可能要被迫面对这个问题。因为将周期性失业恶化成结构性失业的罪魁祸首,就是长期性的失业。

但当今这种现象确实发生了吗?当今欧美所面对的最大问题是否就是结构性失业?我看未必。

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