¿Se Desvanece la Excepción Sueca?

Durante los dos últimos años el electorado de Europa Occidental ha estado inclinándose hacia la derecha. En Dinamarca, Francia, Italia, Holanda, Noruega y Portugal, la inquietud acerca de la inmigración, el desempleo crónico, los altos impuestos y el deterioro de los servicios públicos ha sustentado esa tendencia. Pero como muestran las más recientes elecciones parlamentarias de Europa, los Social Demócratas de Suecia, en el poder por 61 años de los últimos 70 que han pasado, se mantienen relativamente inmunes a los serios retos que plantea la derecha.

Las encuestas de opinión realizadas apenas hace unos meses le dieron un 44% del apoyo popular a los Social Demócratas. En conjunto con los Comunistas y los Verdes, la izquierda mantuvo una cómoda ventaja de 12-15% sobre los cuatro partidos no socialistas. Ese márgen se redujo dramáticamente durante la campaña y la izquierda retuvo el poder a duras penas, al final esa ventaja probó ser insuperable.

¿Por qué Suecia se ha resistido a la marea derechista que ha cubierto gran parte de Europa Occidental? La razón más evidente del persistente atractivo de los Social Demócratas es la política externa. A inicios de 2001 Suecia ocupaba la presidencia de la Unión Europea (UE), brindándole al Primer Ministro, Göran Persson, el político líder del país, una límpida luz bajo la cual podía destacar. Los Social Demócratas también se beneficiaron al brindar apoyo a Estados Unidos después de los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre, una postura popular que, por tanto, se apoderó de cierto terreno de la oposición no socialista.

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