Der Wert europäischer Werte

Die Regierungen Europas haben die Gespräche über eine EU-Verfassung wieder aufgenommen, nachdem diese im letzten Dezember aufgrund eines Streits über Abstimmungsverfahren abgebrochen wurden. Derartige Meinungsverschiedenheiten sind natürlich durch Kompromisse beizulegen, die höchstwahrscheinlich auch gefunden werden. Worüber man sich allerdings noch einig werden muss, ist eine klare Vorstellung davon, was mit der europäischen Verfassung erreicht werden soll.

Die europäische Integration beruht auf zwei fundamentalen Grundsätzen: Solidarität und Subsidiarität. Beide Grundsätze befinden sich an der Schnittstelle zwischen Philosophie, Politik, Ökonomie, Soziologie und Recht. Seit Jahren finden sie im rechtlichen und institutionellen Rahmenwerk der Europäischen Union ihren Ausdruck - in Verträgen, in der Grundrechtscharta (wo sie in der Präambel genannt werden) und im gegenwärtigen Verfassungsentwurf. Beide Prinzipien sind also in der Geschichte und in den Idealen der EU verankert. Was aber bedeuten Solidarität und Subsidiarität wirklich?

Betrachten wir zunächst die Solidarität, die in mindestens zweifacher Hinsicht interpretiert werden kann: Als statische Solidarität, bei der es nur um die Verteilung von Einkommen und Wohlstand geht und als das weiter reichende Konzept der dynamischen Solidarität, bei der auch die Erzeugung von Einkommen und Wohlstand berücksichtigt wird.

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