La valeur des valeurs européennes

Les dirigeants européens ont repris les discussions constitutionnelles qui avaient pris fin en décembre dernier suite à un différend sur les droits de vote. Ces débats doivent bien évidemment déboucher sur des compromis, ce qui ne saurait tarder. Reste encore à comprendre clairement quels sont les objectifs supposés de la constitution.

Deux principes fondamentaux ont présidé à l'intégration européenne : solidarité et subsidiarité. Ces deux principes se tiennent à la croisée de la philosophie, de la politique, de l'économie, de la sociologie et du droit. Pendant des années, ils ont fait partie intégrante de la structure juridique et institutionnelle de l'Union Européenne, dans les traités, dans la Charte des Droits Fondamentaux (qui les cite dans son Préambule) et dans le récent avant-projet de Constitution. Pour résumer, ils sont inscrits dans l'histoire et les idéaux de l'UE. Mais quelle est la signification réelle de ces deux principes ?

Prenons la solidarité, qui se prête à deux interprétations au minimum : la solidarité statique , qui concerne uniquement la distribution des revenus et des richesses, et le concept plus vaste de solidarité dynamique , qui porte sur la production de revenus et de richesses.

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