Глобализация Совета Безопасности

БРАЗИЛИА – Устав Организации Объединенных Наций, подписанный в 1945 году, стал историческим прорывом в стремлении к обеспечению мира на многосторонней основе. В конце мировой войны, которая унесла более 50 миллионов жизней, Соединенные Штаты и Советский Союз превратились в две крупнейшие державы. Уставом ООН, изначально согласованным между США, Советским Союзом и Великобританией во время второй мировой войны, был основан Совет Безопасности, состоящий из пяти постоянных членов, включая Францию и Китайскую Республику.

В самом начале своей деятельности ООН собрала вместе 51 страну; теперь в ее состав входят 193 государства. И хотя Совет Безопасности расширился в 1965 году за счет увеличения мест непостоянных членов с шести до десяти, состав постоянных государств-членов не менялся с 1945 года.

Мир прошел через множество преобразований с тех пор. Помимо межгосударственных конфликтов и распространения оружия – в частности, оружия массового поражения – стали возникать новые проблемы, такие как терроризм и вовлечение негосударственных субъектов во внутренние конфликты. Между тем, глобальное распределение экономической и политической власти претерпело радикальные изменения, создавая условия для возникновения многополярного мира.

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