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全球化安理会

巴西利亚—1945年联合国宪章代表着在追求基于多边基础的和平的道路上的历史性突破。在夺走5000多万人生命的世界大战结束时,美国和苏联成为世界两大超级大国。联合国宪章最初由美国、苏联和英国在二战期间谈判确定,成立了包括五个常任理事国的安理会,其他两个是法国和中华民国。

成立之初,联合国总共包括51个成员国;如今有193个。但是,尽管安理会在1965年做了扩充,将非常任理事国的数量从六个增加到十个,但常任理事国数量自1945年以来从未改变。

世界则发生了天翻地覆的变化。除了国际冲突和武器扩散——特别是大规模杀伤性武器的扩散——还出现了其他新挑战,比如恐怖主义以及非国家行东方参与国内冲突。与此同时,全球经济和政治实力分布也发生了彻底的改变,为多极国际秩序设立了舞台。

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