عولمة مجلس الأمن

برازيليا ــ كان ميثاق الأمم المتحدة في عام 1945 يُعَد إنجازاً تاريخياً خارقاً بكل المقاييس في السعي إلى تحقيق السلام على أساس متعدد الأطراف. ففي نهاية الحرب العالمية التي حصدت أرواح أكثر من خمسين مليون إنسان، برزت الولايات المتحدة والاتحاد السوفييتي بوصفهما القوتين العظميين الرئيسيتين على مستوى العالم. ثم أنشأ ميثاق الأمم المتحدة، الذي تم التفاوض عليه في مستهل الأمر من قِبَل الولايات المتحدة والاتحاد السوفييتي والمملكة المتحدة أثناء الحرب العالمية الثانية، أنشأ مجلس الأمن الذي ضم خمسة أعضاء دائمي العضوية، بما في ذلك فرنسا وجمهورية الصين.

في بدايتها كانت الأمم المتحدة تصم 51 دولة: وهي الآن تضم 193 دولة عضوا. ولكن على الرغم من توسيع مجلس الأمن في عام 1965 بزيادة عدد الدول غير الأعضاء من ست إلى عشر دول، فإن أعضاءه الدائمين ظلوا بلا تغيير منذ عام 1945.

لقد شهد العالم تحولات غير عادية منذ ذلك الوقت. ففضلاً عن النزاعات بين الدول وانتشار الأسلحة ــ وبشكل خاص أسلحة الدمار الشامل ــ نشأت تحديات جديدة، مثل الإرهاب وتورط جهات فاعلة غير تابعة لدول بعينها في صراعات داخلية. ومن ناحية أخرى خضع التوزيع العالمي للقوة الاقتصادية والسياسية لإعادة تشكيل جذرية، الأمر الذي مهد الطريق لظهور نظام دولي متعدد الأقطاب.

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