Jon Krause

让联合国来拯救气候变化

发自巴黎 —— 如果要在全世界范围内找一个既能赋予所有国家以投票权,又奉行少数服从多数原则的议事机构,那就非联合国大会莫属了。该大会的决议方式并不遵照全体同意原则,也没有设立任何否决权,而这也恰恰是它为什么没被用来对抗气候变化的原因。因为大会可以忽略那些大国所设立的障碍 —— 比如中国和美国在去年 12 月哥本哈根全球气候峰会上的所作所为。

毫无疑问,联合国从前一直都在气候变化问题上扮演着领导角色。自从 1992 年在里约热内卢签订了《联合国气候变化框架协议》 (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change) 以来,几乎每年都会召开一个“团体会议” (Conference of Parties, COP) 。这些会议通常是技术性的,而且讨论往往也仅限于大使级别。但这些外交人员的会议准备工作有时也需要得到部长级官员甚至是政府最高首脑的拍板,正如 1997 年的京都会议以及去年的哥本哈根 COP15 峰会。

曾记得当年许多国家代表团启程奔赴日本京都之时,都是准备好了要接受对温室气体排放征税,至少是对二氧化碳这种最常见的温室气体征税这一理念的。然而美国当时却是由一个希望减少国家干涉经济的政府主政,因此它派出的代表团则强烈反对这一理念。

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