La gauche démocratique et les enjeux de la place Taksim

ISTANBUL – Le petit parc de la place Taksim qui orne la métropole tentaculaire d’Istanbul constitue l’un des derniers espaces verts du centre-ville. Le 28 mai, une poignée d’écologistes turcs avaient simplement entamé un mouvement de protestation pacifique contre un plan de réaménagement du parc, censé remplacer sa verdure par une réplique des casernes militaires de l’ère Ottomane qui abriterait un centre commercial ainsi que des appartements. Mais la lourdeur de la répression policière a embrasé un mouvement civique massif, qui s’est propagé au pays tout entier.

Le plan de réaménagement du parc a suscité une colère considérable à l’encontre de ce qu’un large segment de la population turque, et notamment les jeunes, considère comme une gouvernance politique paternaliste et autoritaire. L’essor rapide de ce mouvement a été alimenté par une opposition généralisée face à ce que beaucoup perçoivent comme un effort officiel de régence du mode de vie des individus, ainsi que par une frustration liée à un sentiment d’inégalité économique.

En effet, s’il s’agit d’un mouvement de protestation initié par un certain nombre d’écologistes et de jeunes laïques, ce mouvement s’est remarquablement diversifié, ralliant presque du jour au lendemain des communautés diverses. Même les musulmans les plus religieux – et notamment ceux qui estiment que le développement de la Turquie a fait naître un état d’esprit rentier, et permis à beaucoup de s’enrichir trop facilement – ont rejoint les manifestations, comme l’ont fait plusieurs groupes d’extrême-gauche.

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