La verdad sobre la Comisión de la Verdad de Yugoslavia

Cuando las dictaduras caen, ¿cómo pueden las sociedades curar sus heridas? Cada vez más se piensa que a través de las comisiones de la verdad. Pero, ¿cuándo trabajan mejor y qué estructuras y reglas hacen que funcionen más eficazmente? ¿Cuándo son un medio para descubrir la verdad y recuperar la paz social y cuándo son simplemente artificios para que los políticos evadan sus responsabilidades y sus deudas con el pasado? Serbia pondrá a prueba todos estos asuntos.

El órgano establecido por el Presidente Vojislav Kostunica para examinar los crímenes del pasado reciente de Yugoslavia es como el exitoso modelo sudafricano en un aspecto: su nombre es “Comisión de la Verdad y la Reconciliación”. El parecido termina ahí.

La Comisión de la Verdad y la Reconciliación de Sudáfrica se estableció mediante legislación, después de una cuidadosa reflexión en el parlamento y de amplias discusiones a lo largo del país. Catorce meses pasaron, desde que el Ministro de Justicia, Dullah Omar, anunció las intenciones del gobierno de establecer una comisión, hasta que el Presidente Nelson Mandela aprobó la ley. El mandato y los procedimientos de operación de la Comisión se describieron con claridad. Se estableció un calendario para que la Comisión presentara sus informes. Se adoptaron medidas para asegurar que la Comisión obtuviera el testimonio tanto de los acusados como de las víctimas.

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