Pravda o jugoslávské komisi pravdy

Jak společnost hojí rány, když padne diktatura? Správným krokem vpřed se stále častěji jeví takzvané „komise pravdy“. Kdy ale fungují nejlépe a jaké struktury a pravidla jsou podmínkou pro jejich efektivní práci? Kdy jsou cestou, jak odkrýt celou pravdu a obnovit společenský smír, a kdy jsou jen umným způsobem, aby politici unikli zodpovědnosti a zúčtování s minulostí? Srbsko je pro zodpovězení těchto otázek modelovým příkladem.

Orgán ustavený jugoslávským prezidentem Vojislavem Koštunicou, jehož cílem je vyšetřit zločiny z nedávné jugoslávské minulosti, na jedné straně připomíná úspěšný jihoafrický model: nazývá se „komise pravdy a usmíření“. Zde ale veškerá podobnost končí.

Jihoafrická komise pravdy a usmíření vznikla ze zákona po pečlivém zvážení parlamentem a rozsáhlé diskusi napříč celou zemí. Mezi oznámením ministra spravedlnosti Dullaha Omara o vládním záměru zřídit tuto komisi a podpisem příslušeného zákona jihoafrickým prezidentem Nelsonem Mandelou uběhlo čtrnáct měsíců. Mandát komise a její metodika byly jasně vymezeny. Spolu s tím byl komisi stanoven harmonogram pro informování veřejnosti. Byla přijata opatření, aby komise mohla bez obtíží získávat svědectví pachatelů i obětí zločinů.

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