La verdad sobre la distribución de la carga de la OTAN

BRUSELAS – A la hora de discutir sobre Afganistán, muchos periódicos siguen sugiriendo que algunos de los aliados de Europa en la OTAN tienen un desempeño pobre en Afganistán, y que no pueden o no quieren hacer un mayor esfuerzo. Naturalmente, estos aliados sienten que sus esfuerzos no son bien valorados. ¿Qué es una carga justa y equitativa?

Ante todo, el debate sobre cómo distribuir la carga no debería reducirse exclusivamente a los niveles de fuerzas de hoy en Afganistán, porque, no importa cuán importantes sean estos niveles de fuerzas, sólo cuentan parte de la historia. De modo que permítanme ampliar el debate y ofrecer una perspectiva más holística al abordar tres elementos interconectados: la transformación de la defensa, las operaciones y el contexto más amplio de los esfuerzos de la comunidad internacional.

La transformación de la defensa es un aspecto clave de la distribución de la carga. Es una regla de oro dentro de la alianza que el grueso de las fuerzas y capacidades de la OTAN son propiedad de las naciones individuales -la flota de aviones del Sistema Aéreo de Control y Alerta (AWACS) de la alianza- es una rara excepción-. Como no espero que las naciones abandonen este principio, la OTAN seguirá dependiendo de los aliados individuales y su voluntad de comprometer recursos.

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