La vérité sur le partage des charges de l’Otan

BRUXELLES – Lorsqu’ils abordent le sujet de l’Afghanistan, beaucoup de journaux suggèrent encore que certains alliés de l’Otan ne se comportent pas comme ils le devraient sur place, et sont soit incapables, soit réticents à faire un plus grand effort. Naturellement, ces alliés estiment quant à eux que leurs efforts sont sous-estimés. Mais qu’est-ce, en fin de compte, qu’une charge juste et équitable ?

Tout d’abord, le débat sur le partage des charges (“ burden-sharing ”) ne doit pas se réduire à l’actualité des soldats déployés sur le sol afghan, car, aussi important que soit le niveau de ces troupes, il ne dévoile qu’une seule facette de la situation. Laissez-moi élargir le débat et proposer un point de vue plus holistique, en évoquant trois éléments interconnectés : la transformation de la défense, les opérations et le plus vaste contexte des efforts de la communauté internationale.

La transformation de la défense est un aspect-clé du partage des charges. Il est une règle d’or au sein de l’alliance, qui veut que la majorité des forces et des capacités de l’Otan soit la propriété de nations individuelles – la flotte du Système de détection et de commandement aéroporté (SDCA) de l’alliance est une exception. Comme je ne m’attends pas à voir les nations abandonner ce principe, l’Otan continuera à dépendre des alliés individuels et de leur volonté d’engager leurs ressources.

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