Tim Brinton

Le déficit de confiance mondiale

NEW YORK – Préoccupés par les déficits budgétaires, les responsables politiques des pays développés continuent de négliger un autre manque à gagner, pourtant tout aussi sérieux : le déficit de confiance entre les économies avancées et émergentes au sujet de la gouvernance mondiale.

Durant des décennies, les actionnaires des pays développés au Fonds Monétaire International et de la Banque mondiale ont utilisé la conditionnalité des prêts pour stimuler les réformes économiques (qui comprend souvent des mesures litigieuses d'austérité budgétaire) vers les pays dits du Tiers-Monde. Grâce à des efforts pragmatiques et soutenus de réforme, des pays comme le Brésil, la Chine et l'Inde ont transformé leurs économies pour réaliser des augmentations spectaculaires de leur taux de croissance du PIB, d'un taux annuel moyen de 3,5% en 1980-1994 jusqu'à 5,5% aujourd'hui.

Mais même si les pays en développement représentent désormais plus de la moitié de la croissance du PIB mondial, les pays avancés doivent déjà leur accorder une place de décideurs depuis que leur influence va croissant dans l'économie mondiale.

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