Tim Brinton

عجز الثقة العالمي

نيويورك ــ في انشغالهم بالعجز المالي، يستمر صناع السياسات في البلدان المتقدمة في إهمال شكل مختلف من أشكال العجز ولكنه لا يقل أهمية: عجز الثقة بين الاقتصادات المتقدمة والناشئة عندما يتعلق الأمر بالإدارة العالمية.

على مدى عقود من الزمان، كانت الدول المتقدمة المساهمة في صندوق النقد الدولي والبنك الدولي تستخدم شروط الإقراض لحفز الإصلاحات الاقتصادية ــ والتي كثيراً ما كانت تتضمن تدابير تقشف مالي مثيرة للجدال ــ في ما يسمى بالعالم الثالث. ومن خلال جهود الإصلاح الواقعية المتواصلة، نجحت بلدان مثل البرازيل والصين والهند في تحويل اقتصاداتها وتحقيق زيادات مذهلة في نمو الناتج المحلي الإجمالي ــ من متوسط معدل سنوي 3.5% في الفترة 1980-1994 إلى 5.5% منذ ذلك الوقت.

ولكن برغم أن البلدان النامية تستأثر الآن بأكثر من نصف نمو الناتج المحلي الإجمالي العالمي، فإن البلدان المتقدمة لم تعترف لها حتى الآن بأدوار قيادية تعكس نفوذها المتنامي في الاقتصاد العالمي.

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