Los problemas de tratar el trauma

Cuando ocurre un desastre, la llegada de ``consejeros bien capacitados'' es tan característica del escenario de los hechos como el arribo de los servicios de emergencia. ¿Qué es lo que hacen en realidad estos consejeros ? Usualmente, efectúan alguna forma del llamado ``debriefing'' (consulta después de los sucesos) o ``critical incident stress debriefing'' (consulta para el alivio del estrés después de un suceso de gran impacto). Pero, ¿ayudan realmente estas sesiones?

El ``debriefing'' es invariablemente una sesión corta y por lo general única, una intervención que se realiza con tantas personas como sea posible, después de que han sufrido una situación traumática. Implica relacionar el examen de esta situación con educación acerca de las respuestas emocionales que se esperan y la afirmación de que son normales. Con esto se espera reducir la angustia emocional aguda y prevenir el surgimiento de desórdenes siquiátricos después del trauma.

Muchas organizaciones ofrecen ``debriefing'' como parte de su respuesta a incidentes traumáticos, como es el caso de los efectivos policiales que participan en situaciones donde se ha hecho uso de armas de fuego, o personal bancario que ha sido testigo de un asalto. En algunas instituciones las intervenciones son obligatorias, quizás por el deseo de reducir la angustia sicológica, pero también por la creencia de que esto reducirá el riesgo de ser objeto de litigios judiciales.

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