Die Schwierigkeiten der Traumabehandlung

Bei Katastrophen gehört die Anwesenheit von ,,Traumaberatern`` ebenso schon zum gewohnten Bild wie die Ankunft der Einsatzkräfte. Was aber machen diese Traumaberater eigentlich? Normalerweise führen sie das so genannte ,,Debriefing`` oder ,,Critical Incident Stress Debriefing`` (Gruppengespräche nach einem kritischen Ereignis) durch. Aber haben diese Gespräche auch irgendeinen Nutzen?

Beim Debriefing handelt es sich immer um eine kurze, vielfach einmalige Krisenintervention, bei der möglichst viele von einem traumatischen Ereignis Betroffene teilnehmen. In diesen Gesprächen wird das traumatische Ereignis aufgearbeitet, mit den Teilnehmern über die zu erwartenden emotionalen Reaktionen gesprochen und darauf hingewiesen, dass diese Reaktionen durchaus normal sind. Man erhofft sich dadurch eine Verminderung der akuten emotionalen Belastung und Vorbeugung posttraumatischer Störungen.

Zahlreiche Organisationen bieten ihren Mitarbeitern nach traumatischen Ereignissen Debriefing an - beispielsweise für Polizisten nach Einsätzen mit Schusswechsel oder für Bankangestellte nach Raubüberfällen. In manchen Fällen sind derartige Interventionen sogar verpflichtend - möglicherweise um den psychologischen Stress zu minimieren, aber wohl auch, weil man hofft, sich eventuelle Rechtsstreitigkeiten zu ersparen.

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