Dean Rohrer

自由家长式作风的问题

芝加哥—反对家长式政府的理由很多:除了这样会限制个人选择(比如,在当前美国医保争论为尘埃落定时选择不参加医保)和让人怠于学习之外,历史一再表明,社会所流行的传统智慧是错的。此外,政府通常会强化传统智慧,因此可能造成灾难性后果,因为国家的协调力和强制力会放大负面效应。

一个显而易见的例子便是金融监管,从很多角度看,这是典型的家长式作风。在美国,高等级按揭支持证券份额的低风险让它们颇具吸引力,因其高回报率而成为银行的最爱。但它们根本就不安全,尽管传统智慧认为它们安全。而由于监管者曾宣称它们是安全的,因此太多的银行过多地持有了这些工具,当所有银行同时开始抛售时,更增加了它们的风险。

其他政府家长式作风协调力所导致风险的例子不胜枚举。如果我开车去芝加哥市中心,那么我将经过一系列高层住宅项目,当初开发它们时,说这是治愈无家可归、贫困、失业和犯罪问题的良药。而如今,它们成了这些社会疾病集中而持久的写照。

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