Los Problemas de la Defensa Europea

WASHINGTON, D.C.: En la cumbre de líderes de la Unión Europea (UE) en Niza se lograron pocos de los objetivos fijados, pero sí se presionó para la creación de una identidad militar de la UE, la Iniciativa de Defensa Europea (IDE). Este movimiento, sin embargo, está empezando a generar preocupación, tanto en la Organización del Tratado del Atlántico Norte (OTAN) como en los Estados Unidos (EUA).

Desde hace tiempo el principio fundamental de la política exterior estadounidense ha sido apoyar cualquier acción que fomente una mayor integración de la UE. Si tales acciones pudieran afectar algunos intereses del país norteamericano, el remedio es buscar una revisión a detalle, sin oponerse a la iniciativa en sí. A diferencia de los "Tories" británicos, algunos "Gaullistas" franceses y muchos daneses y suecos, los estadounidenses no le temen al posible surgimiento de los Estados Unidos de Europa, sin duda un competidor potencial, pero también un socio muy necesario en la escena mundial.

Cuando la IDE tuvo su inicio, la respuesta de EUA no fue distinta. Aunque algunos declarados defensores franceses de la IDE no intentaron ocultar su deseo de reemplazar a la OTAN en su totalidad, pues consideraban que esta era la única forma de emancipar a Europa de la hegemonía estadounidense, no fue así como se presentó y se discutió la IDE oficialmente en los consejos de la UE. Esta versión oficial de la IDE sería un auxiliar de la OTAN, no un competidor, y su propósito era proveer fuerzas europeas para operaciones de paz menos complicadas que no requerían de la participación de fuerzas de combate norteamericanas.

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