Le triomphe du politique en Europe

MADRID – L'économie, particulièrement sous sa forme théorique, finit toujours par s'effacer devant les impératifs politiques. C'est pourquoi les changements subits du paysage politique de l'Europe, refaçonné en France et en Grèce par les frondes électorales contre l'austérité fiscale prônée par l’Allemagne, risquent également d'influer sur les mesures économiques de l'Europe.

Un tel impératif a toujours sous-tendu la période d'après-guerre de l'Europe. Effectivement, le passage de l'Europe d'une modeste union douanière de la Communauté économique européenne au marché commun et à la monnaie unique de l'actuelle Union monétaire européenne était en soi un acte fondamentalement politique, qui était évidemment chargé d'implications stratégiques. La France souhaitait apprivoiser la puissance allemande en l’attelant au projet européen et l'Allemagne était prête à sacrifier le Deutsche Mark pour que la France accepte la réunification des deux Allemagnes, le cauchemar pour l’Europe d’un passé encore frais.

Une Allemagne économiquement forte est, sans aucun doute, essentielle au projet européen. Ne serait-ce que par les leçons du passé qui ont démontré combien dangereuse pourrait être une Allemagne mécontente ? C'est en fait grâce à l'euro et au marché européen captif qui l'accompagne que l'Allemagne contemporaine est la deuxième plus grande exportatrice mondiale (surpassée par la Chine en 2009).

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