Las trampas de los acuerdos comerciales

Se dice que el reciente acuerdo comercial entre Chile y los Estados Unidos es el primer instrumento importante de su tipo desde que se firmara el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN) hace diez años. No obstante, mientras que ciertos círculos estadounidenses lo celebran, presenta muchos de los problemas que caracterizan a los acuerdos comerciales que se han firmado con anterioridad, problemas que generan mucho descontento hacia la globalización. En efecto, en algunos aspectos es un paso hacia atrás.

Una fuente del descontento hacia la globalización es que priva a los países de su libertad para proteger a sus ciudadanos y a su economía. Por lo visto, los intereses especiales de los países industriales tienen preferencia sobre intereses más amplios. Además, estos acuerdos comerciales frecuentemente son asimétricos: el Norte, que conserva barreras comerciales y subsidia a sus propios agricultores, insiste en que el Sur abra sus mercados y elimine los subsidios.

En ciertos aspectos, el acuerdo con Chile fue innovador; en la dirección equivocada. No logró aprovechar las oportunidades que ofrecía un comercio más abierto con un mercado emergente que tiene un servicio público sofisticado y altamente calificado.

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