帕维尔·S的审判

斯特拉斯堡——在2004年一个寒冷的冬日,一位名叫帕维尔·斯楚卡托洛夫(Pavel Shtukaturov)的俄国青年发现一位法官已经剥夺了他为自己代言的权利。被剥夺了法律资格的他被禁止在生活中的绝大多数领域独立采取行动,或者说采取任何行动。他不再有权工作、旅行、选择自己的居住地点、购买或出售财产,甚至不再有权结婚。

法官剥夺这些权利的时候甚至都没有通知他一声——事实上,帕维尔也只是在一年之后才偶然发现。当他寻找律师捍卫自己权利的时候,被指定为他法定监护人的母亲却把他关在一所精神病院里长达7个月之久。这一连串恶梦般的卡夫卡式事件之所以成为可能,是因为帕维尔患有精神疾病,又生活在一个拒绝保护他权利的体制之中。

在俄国,大致有125,000名精神疾病患者被关进疯人院——并且终身都无法再踏出精神病院的大门。此外精神病院共有165,000张床位,每年都有650,000人入院治疗。可这些统计数字并不能反映真实的情况。像斯楚卡托洛夫这样的故事鲜有流传。俄国精神病患者究竟受到怎样的待遇令人震惊的无人过问。

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