貿易援助という迷信

貿易援助は、国際的キーワードとなっている。 援助 (債権放棄を含む) の拡大および、貧しい国々の製品の裕福な国々の市場へのアクセスの拡大が、グローバルな最重要課題であるかのように見える。事実、今日の議論は何をすべきかでなく、いかに迅速にいくらできるかについてである。

このすべてに欠けているものは、経済開発の過去五十年間からの明確な教訓である。その最たるものが、経済開発のほとんどが、貧しい国々自身の手にかかっているということである。最近軌道に乗っている国々は、彼ら自身の努力によりそれを実現しているのである。援助および市場へのアクセスは、実際には決定的な役割を果たしてきたわけではない。

最大の近隣国であり、世界でもっとも力強い経済国でもある国の、自由で選好的な市場へのアクセスを有する開発国を考えてみよう。さらに、この国が何万人もの国民を、国境を越えて働かせることができ、大規模な海外援助を受けることができ、また国際生産連鎖に完全に統合されるとする。また、この国の銀行機構が、裕福な近隣国の、最後の楽園への融資者として振舞う、演出された厚意によって支えられているとする。グローバル化の最高の状態と言える。

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