Los tres modelos suecos

Con frecuencia se representa el sistema económico y social de Suecia, a veces llamado el "modelo sueco", ora como un ideal ora como una anormalidad, pero se trata de un sistema que ha variado considerablemente. De hecho, hablando en términos generales, ha habido tres "modelos" suecos diferentes desde el final del siglo XIX.

El primer modelo duró desde 1870, aproximadamente, hasta el decenio de 1960. Durante ese período "liberal", el Estado se ocupaba básicamente de la legislación en apoyo del mercado, la educación, la atención de salud y las infraestructuras. En fecha tan avanzada como 1960, tanto el gasto total del Estado (como porcentaje del PIB) como la distribución de los ingresos eran similares a los predominantes en los Estados Unidos. Durante ese período de un siglo, Suecia pasó de ser uno de los países occidentales más pobres a ser el tercer país en riqueza con su PIB por habitante. Dicho de otro modo, Suecia pasó a ser un país rico antes de que se formularan sus disposiciones, sumamente generosas, relativas al Estado del bienestar.

Una segunda época duró desde 1960 a 1985. Durante este período se mantuvo el régimen de libre comercio del período liberal –y de hecho, se intensificó con las diversas rondas de liberalización del comercio mundial–, pero la tendencia predominante era a la creación de un generoso Estado del bienestar. A finales del decenio de 1980, el gasto público total oscilaba entre el 60 y el 65 por ciento del PIB, frente al 30 por ciento, aproximadamente, en 1960. Además, los tipos impositivos marginales oscilaban entre el 65 y el 75 por ciento en el caso de la mayoría de los empleados con jornada completa, frente al 40 por ciento en 1960 (incluidos todos los impuestos correspondientes a los hogares).

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/f7VtUgh/es;
  1. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images

    The Summit of Climate Hopes

    Presidents, prime ministers, and policymakers gather in Paris today for the One Planet Summit. But with no senior US representative attending, is the 2015 Paris climate agreement still viable?

  2. Trump greets his supporters The Washington Post/Getty Images

    Populist Plutocracy and the Future of America

    • In the first year of his presidency, Donald Trump has consistently sold out the blue-collar, socially conservative whites who brought him to power, while pursuing policies to enrich his fellow plutocrats. 

    • Sooner or later, Trump's core supporters will wake up to this fact, so it is worth asking how far he might go to keep them on his side.
  3. Agents are bidding on at the auction of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi' Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images

    The Man Who Didn’t Save the World

    A Saudi prince has been revealed to be the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi," for which he spent $450.3 million. Had he given the money to the poor, as the subject of the painting instructed another rich man, he could have restored eyesight to nine million people, or enabled 13 million families to grow 50% more food.

  4.  An inside view of the 'AknRobotics' Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

    Two Myths About Automation

    While many people believe that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically, there is no evidence of either trend. In reality, total factor productivity, the best summary measure of the pace of technical change, has been stagnating since 2005 in the US and across the advanced-country world.

  5. A student shows a combo pictures of three dictators, Austrian born Hitler, Castro and Stalin with Viktor Orban Attila Kisbenedek/Getty Images

    The Hungarian Government’s Failed Campaign of Lies

    The Hungarian government has released the results of its "national consultation" on what it calls the "Soros Plan" to flood the country with Muslim migrants and refugees. But no such plan exists, only a taxpayer-funded propaganda campaign to help a corrupt administration deflect attention from its failure to fulfill Hungarians’ aspirations.

  6. Project Syndicate

    DEBATE: Should the Eurozone Impose Fiscal Union?

    French President Emmanuel Macron wants European leaders to appoint a eurozone finance minister as a way to ensure the single currency's long-term viability. But would it work, and, more fundamentally, is it necessary?

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now