Три шведские модели

Экономическую и социальную систему Швеции, которую иногда называют «шведской моделью», часто считают либо идеалом, либо аномалией. Но шведская система претерпела множество изменений. Вообще говоря, с конца 19-го века в Швеции существовали три разные модели.

Первая модель просуществовала приблизительно с 1870-ых по 1960-е годы. Во время этого «либерального» периода, правительство главным образом занималось созданием стабильного прорыночного законодательства, системы образования и здравоохранения, а также инфраструктуры. В конце 1960-х годов государственные расходы (как процент ВВП) и распределение заработка были очень похожи на аналогичные показатели США. За этот период, продолжавшийся почти целый век, Швеция превратилась из одной из беднейших стран Запада в третью в мире страну по уровню ВВП на душу населения. Другими словами, Швеция стала богатой страной до того, как была создана ее щедрая система государства всеобщего благосостояния.

Вторая эпоха продолжалась с 1960 по 1985 годы. В этот период режим свободной торговли либерального периода не только сохранился, но даже углубился в результате различных раундов либерализации глобальной торговли, однако его отличительной чертой было создание щедрого государства всеобщего благосостояния. К концу 1980-х годов общий уровень государственных расходов достиг 60% - 65% ВВП по сравнению с 30% в 1960-е годы. Более того, максимальная налоговая ставка достигла 65% - 75% для большинства людей, работающих полный рабочий день, по сравнению с 40% в 1960-х годах (включая все прямые налоги).

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