Les trois modèles suédois

Le système économique et social de la Suède, parfois appelé le “modèle suédois,” est souvent qualifié soit d’idéal, soit d’anormal. Mais ce système a beaucoup varié. En fait, il y a eu en gros trois “modèles” suédois différents depuis la fin du XIXe siècle.

Le premier modèle a duré d’environ 1870 jusqu’aux années 1960. Pendant cette période “libérale,” le gouvernement a simplement fourni une législation, un système éducatif, de santé et une infrastructure stables et qui soutenaient le marché. En 1960, à la fois les dépenses totales du gouvernement (en tant que part du PIB) et la distribution des revenus étaient similaires à ceux des États-Unis. Pendant cette période d’un siècle, la Suède est passée de l’un des pays occidentaux les plus pauvres au troisième pays le plus riche en termes de PIB par habitant. En d’autres mots, la Suède est devenu un pays riche avant que son système extrêmement généreux de sécurité sociale ne soit créé.

Une deuxième période s’est déroulée de 1960 à 1985. Le régime de libre-échange de la période libérale a été conservé (il a même été renforcé par les différents cycles de libéralisation du commerce mondial) mais le mouvement dominant a été la création d’un généreux État-providence. À la fin des années 1980, les dépenses publiques totales atteignaient 60-65 % du PIB, comparé à environ 30 % en 1960. En outre, les taux marginaux d’imposition ont atteint 65-75 % pour la plupart des employés à temps plein, comparé à environ 40 % en 1960 (toutes les impositions sur les ménages incluses).

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